Saturday, May 23, 2020

Is Natural Selection Random

Natural selection, the process by which species adapts to their environment through changes in genetics, is not random. Through years of evolution, natural selection boosts the biological traits that help animals and plants survive in their particular environment, and weeds out the traits that make survival more difficult. However, the genetic changes (or mutations) that are filtered by natural selection do come about randomly. In this sense, natural selection contains both random and non-random components. Key Takeaways Introduced by Charles Darwin, natural selection is the idea that a species adapts to its environment through changes in its genetics.Natural selection is not random, though the genetic changes (or mutations) that are filtered by natural selection do come about randomly.Some case studies–for example, peppered moths–have directly shown the impacts or processes of natural selection. How Natural Selection Works Natural selection is the mechanism by which species evolve. In natural selection, a species acquires genetic adaptations that will help them survive in their environment, and pass those favorable adaptations to their offspring. Eventually, only individuals with those favorable adaptations will survive. One notable, recent example of natural selection is elephants in areas where the animals are being poached for ivory. These animals are giving birth to fewer children with tusks, which may give them a better chance of survival. Charles Darwin, the father of evolution, figured out natural selection by witnessing several key observations: There are many traits–which are qualities or properties that characterize an organism. These traits, furthermore, can vary in the same species. For example, in one area you may find some butterflies that are yellow and others that are red.Many of these traits are heritable and can be passed from parents to offspring.Not all organisms survive since an environment has limited resources. For example, the red butterflies from above tend to be eaten by birds, causing there to be more yellow butterflies. These yellow butterflies reproduce more and they become more common in the next generations.Over time, the population has adapted to its environment–later on, the yellow butterflies will be the only type around. A Caveat of Natural Selection Natural selection is not perfect. The process does not necessarily select for the absolute best adaptation there could be for a given environment, but does yield traits that work for a given environment. For example, birds have more effective lungs than humans, which allow birds to take in more fresh air and are overall more efficient in terms of air flow. Furthermore, a genetic trait that was once considered more favorable may be lost if it is no longer useful. For example, many primates cannot produce vitamin C because the gene corresponding to that trait was inactivated through mutation. In this case, the primates typically live in environments where vitamin C is easily accessible. Genetic Mutations are Random Mutations–which are defined as changes in a genetic sequence–occur randomly. They can help out, harm, or not affect an organism at all, and will occur no matter how detrimental or beneficial it may be for a certain organism. The rate of mutations can change depending on the environment. For example, exposure to a harmful chemical may increase an animal’s rate of mutation. Natural Selection in Action Though natural selection is responsible for many of the traits we see and encounter, some case studies have directly shown the impacts or processes of natural selection. Galapagos Finches During Darwin’s travels in the Galapagos Islands, he saw several variations of a type of bird called a finch. Though he saw that the finches were very similar to one another (and to another type of finch he had seen in South America), Darwin noted that the finches’ beaks helped the birds eat specific types of food. For instance, finches that ate insects had sharper beaks to help catch bugs, while finches that ate seeds had stronger and thicker beaks. Peppered Moths An example can be found with the peppered moth, which can only be either white or black, and whose survival depends on their ability to blend in with their surroundings. During the Industrial Revolution–when factories were contaminating the air with soot and other forms of pollution–people noted that white moths dwindled in number whereas black moths became much more common. A British scientist then performed a series of experiments showing that black moths were growing in number because their color allowed them to blend in better with the soot-covered areas, protecting them from being eaten by birds. To support this explanation, another (initially doubtful) scientist then showed that white moths were eaten less in an unpolluted area, while black moths were eaten more. Sources Ainsworth, Claire, and Michael Le Page. â€Å"Evolution’s Greatest Mistakes.† New Scientist, New, 8 Aug. 2007, www.newscientist.com/article/mg19526161-800-evolutions-greatest-mistakes/.Feeney, William. â€Å"Natural Selection in Black and White: How Industrial Pollution Changed Moths.† The Conversation, The Conversation US, 15 July 2015, theconversation.com/natural-selection-in-black-and-white-how-industrial-pollution-changed-moths-43061.Le Page, Michael. â€Å"Evolution Myths: Evolution Produces Perfectly Adapted Creatures.† New Scientist, New Scientist Ltd., 10 Apr. 2008, www.newscientist.com/article/dn13640-evolution-myths-evolution-produces-perfectly-adapted-creatures/.Le Page, Michael. â€Å"Evolution Myths: Evolution Is Random.† New Scientist, New Scientist Ltd., 16 Apr. 2008, www.newscientist.com/article/dn13698-evolution-myths-evolution-is-random/.Maron, Dina Fine. â€Å"Under Poaching Pressure, Elephants Are Evolving to Lose Their Tusks.â €  Nationalgeographic.com, National Geographic, 9 Nov. 2018, www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2018/11/wildlife-watch-news-tuskless-elephants-behavior-change/.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The United States Economy During The Great Depression

The United States economy has never been as great nor as equal as it was during the late 1940s-1970s, a period commonly known as the Great Compression. It is extremely ironic that the United States economy boomed and strived after only a few years succeeding the Great Depression. One may ask what stirred this dramatic change from a damaged economy to one that was striving and strong in so little time. To answer this question, one must look closely at the history of the United States economy. To be more specific, one must take a close look at how damaged the economy was during the Great Depression and how much the New Deal and other political and social factors impacted society to ultimately create the Great Compression. To begin with, the United States economy during the 1920s, prior to the Great Depression, was one that consisted of individuals pursuing to live the American dream at all costs. The time period of the 1920s was also known as the Gilded Age. The Gilded Age suffered fr om immense inequality. There were rich individuals and many poor individuals, and yet hardly any class in between. Many individuals were consuming immensely in order to live the American dream. Individuals were taking credit. Doing so allowed them to borrow and spend whenever they pleased which is great for capitalism. However, individuals were borrowing much more than they could afford to pay back. Many individuals were in great debt and could not afford to pay it back. Capitalism needs debtShow MoreRelatedThe Real Causes of the Depression1020 Words   |  5 PagesStatistics show right now in the United States the unemployment rate is high. A lot of people are saying that this is bad and the economy is slowly going downhill, but most people forget to think that these things are normal and is nothing worse than the Depression of the 1930s. Although some people say that the Depression was caused by the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, it was strictly due to many reasons that were unrelated to the Act. The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act was signed by President Herbert HooverRead MoreThe Causes of Canadas Great Depression of 1929-1939 Essay1679 Words   |  7 Pagesclosest to him heard. â€Å"It’s all gone.†# The term ‘Great Depression’ according to Kristin Brennan evokes black-and-white images of thin men in threadbare suits and worn-out shoes selling five-cent apples on city streets, of â€Å"grim-faced women lined up three deep to collect bread and milk at relief stations.†# The Great Depression of the 1930s was a devastating time toward many Canadians, where the collapse of the stock market was the beginning of the Depression, a period of severe economic and social hardshipRead MoreWorld War II And The Great Depression1658 Words   |  7 Pageshad positive and negative effects during and after the war. After the war, the formation of the United Nations helped negotiate and maintain peace, and during the war more jobs helped get the Uni ted States out of its biggest economic crisis, the Great Depression. Although, some economists argue that by creating more jobs during World War II, put America into even more debt than the country was already in. Standards of living lessened during the end of the Depression and the start of the war, but peopleRead MoreEconomic Effects Of The Great Depression1142 Words   |  5 PagesBlack Tuesday, the United States of America’s stock market crashed causing the Great Depression. The Great Depression of the 1930’s greatly impacted millions of people’s lives around the world. The Depression caused millions of people to lose their homes, jobs and food for their families. The events causing, during, and after the Great Depression will forever be an important part of American History that will never be forgotten. The events that leading up to and caused the Depression date all the wayRead MoreEconomics...In Real Life1567 Words   |  7 PagesThe 1920s were a time of luxury and economic stability in the United States, that is, until the day the stock market crashed and the country was plummeted in to a time of misery and uncertainty called the Great Depression. The ten year span from 1929 until 1939 is one of the worst episodes the United States has ever experienced; it held a great shortage in the money supply, massive unemployment, and despair and doubt for all of the people who lived through it. Frederick Lewis Allen’s book Since Yesterday:Read MoreThe Great Depression1148 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿The Great Depression The major causes of the Great Depression in the United States all began with the expansion of the US economy as a result of World War I during the 1920s. A bubble formed in the United States Stock Market as a result of speculative trading due to the ease of buying and selling stock with new ticker tape technology as well as telephone lines that allowed for market transactions from all over the country. The Stock Market crashed on what is known as Black Tuesday, October 29,Read MoreThe Great Depression and the New Deal Essay example999 Words   |  4 PagesGreat Depression The Great Depression and the New Deal In response to the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression, Franklin D. Roosevelt was ready for action unlike the previous President, Hubert Hoover. Hoover allowed the country to fall into a complete state of depression with his small concern of the major economic problems occurring. FDR began to show major and immediate improvements, with his outstanding actions during the First Hundred Days. He declared the bankRead MoreResearch Paper: Roaring Twenties1537 Words   |  7 Pagesto demobilize and revert back to a peace time economy. During the 1920’s, it was viewed as a prosperous economy since there was a new labor force due to demobilization, new inventions, and a new infrastructure. Also moral spirits were high since America along with the Allied Powers defeated Germany and the Great War was finally over. However, America began making many economic policies and decisions that will eventually lead up to the Great Depression. One economic policy was that â€Å"the FederalRead MoreWorld War Ii And The United States Economy. When People1296 Words   |  6 PagesWorld War II and the United States Economy   Ã‚  Ã‚   When people think about World War II, they normally associate it with Hitler, genocide, the Great Depression, the Cold War, and other negative things; however, there were some positive impacts it had on the United States. Economically, the United States and other countries around the world were devastated by the crashing of the stock market. Unemployment rate was at a high point, Hitler was gaining control of Europe, and we were trying to remain isolationistsRead MoreThe Cold War And The International Political Economy1076 Words   |  5 PagesThe International Political Economy in the 1970s The article that is going to be reflected in the following paragraphs attempts to describe the connection between the Cold War and the transfigurations of the political economy throughout that time period. In doing so, the article, â€Å"The Cold War and The International Political Economy in the 1970s†, examines various forms of scholarly literature on the topic. Often times, the Cold War and international political economy are disconnected, but this

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Economic, Political, and Social Factors Related to Aids in Africa Free Essays

Without a single doubt, one can say politics has been the main driving forces in the spread of this disease. Once the â€Å"triple cocktail† was discovered by doctors, it managed to signal an era in which AIDS was no longer a fatal disease. Nevertheless, the high costs of this drug meant that it was unaffordable to patients from the undeveloped countries where stigma and desperation flourished. We will write a custom essay sample on Economic, Political, and Social Factors Related to Aids in Africa or any similar topic only for you Order Now Additionally, patients in developed countries such as America were incapable of being introduced to this remedy if they were incompetent in affording health care. Patients felt defeated, restless, isolated, and accepted that there is a social disorder accommodated with this disease. There was a political conflict in subordinating the expenses of this medicine in countries such as Brazil where health care is guaranteed for all its citizens. South African government further encountered a tragic failure in battling with this epidemic that was overwhelming its country. President Mbeki came into power with an unconventional message and promised solutions for AIDS. When Mbeki was leading a nation with more infections than any country in the world, he affirmed throughout his speech that HIV is not the causation of AIDS but an environmental or social condition such as poverty, and banned the cocktail claiming it was toxic for the population. Hence, the fundamental proposition that arose was if HIV doesn’t cause AIDS, then how would anti-HIV drugs lead to such dramatic improvement in one’s well-being and how does AIDS get passed on to a child from a mother who is infected with HIV. This evidently proved that denial and neglect in African government for covering the cost burden of these drugs in order to save the lives of its citizens. Indubitably there is a monumental controversy regarding the funding for AIDS drugs globally. If our mission is to reach equity and justice in our society, we must ensure funding for AIDS drugs and also ensure practical preventative factors are provided for all our citizens regardless of their socioeconomic status. How to cite Economic, Political, and Social Factors Related to Aids in Africa, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

SURGEON GENERALS WARNING Environmental Tobacco Smoke Causes Lung Canc Essay Example For Students

SURGEON GENERALS WARNING: Environmental Tobacco Smoke Causes Lung Canc Essay SURGEON GENERALS WARNING: Environmental Tobacco Smoke Causes Lung Cancer, Heart Disease, Emphysema, And May Complicate Pregnancy. Did you know that most people are at the risk of dying from just breathing the air around them? Every day at least ninety-five percent of American people suffer from (E.T.S.) Environmental Tobacco Smoke, or more commonly known as second hand smoke. For those that are not familiar with what second hand smoke is let me explain it to you. Second hand smoke is a mixture of the smoke exhaled by smokers and the smoke that comes from the burning ends of cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. This smoke contains about 4,000 substances in which about fifty percent of these toxic substances can cause cancer and other bodily problems. Environmental Tobacco Smoke has been a problem for many years, but through intense research from many physicians, non-smokers are finally getting the respect they deserve. Smokers now have to smoke outside of public places. While some non-smokers ignore the dangers involved with tobacco smoke others are struggling to live another day. Environmental Tobacco Smoke is made up of both a gas phase and a particulate phase. Together they include more than 4,000 substances. Automatic tobacco-puffing machines have been invented to collect and to study the smoke. In recent years studies have shown us the most hazardous of these chemicals. Tar is considered the deadliest of all the substances. Other chemicals found in tobacco smoke that are hazardous to us are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carboxyhemoglobin, and nicotine (Mendelson and Mello 33-35). During the burning process of tobacco the tip of the burning cone (the center of the pipe, cigarette, and or cigar) reaches a temperature of nearly 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit during a puff. This tiny blast furnace results in a miniature chemical plant, which uses the hundreds of available materials to produce many more. In fact, some of the most important part of tobacco smoke (including tar and carbon monoxide) are not even present in an unburned phase of a tobacco product, but rather are produced when a puff is taken (Mendelson and Mello 37-38). Other studies have shown that indoor environmental tobacco smoke changes the tobacco substance in the gas phase. As tobacco smoke is discharged into an indoor environment, diluted, re-circulated within and vented from the indoor environment, changes occur in both its chemical makeup phases. Making the gas phase substance more harmful than being in a outdoor environment (Ecobichon and Wu 3-4). Tobacco products produce two kinds of smoke, mainstream and sidestream. Mainstream smoke is the smoke that smokers inhale into their lungs. Sidestream smoke is the smoke that is exhaled by the smoker. The average smoker inhales ten two-second puffs of mainstream smoke from the tobacco product they are smoking. As the cigarette, pipe, or cigar sits it releases waves of sidestream smoke into the air. According to some scientists, sidestream smoke is even more dangerous than mainstream smoke. In a recent article produced by the Iowa Medical Society it states that sidestream smoke contains five times the carbon monoxide, three times the tar and nicotine, and up to fifty times the number of carcinogens found in mainstream smoke. A study reported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences confirms that second-hand smoke contains up to fifty times more carcinogens (Ling et al. 92). Carcinogens are described in the Websters dictionary as being a substance that produces a mali gnant tumor, or cancer in a living cell (Landoll et al. 71). In todays society people are aware that tobacco smoke is unhealthy, but most choose not to become concerned with what this chemical does to their bodies. With the amount of smokers in todays society, Environmental Tobacco Smoke has diluted are air with thousands of chemicals that causes severe damage to both our inner and exterior body components. Doctor Ameron of Atlanta Georgia writes that six out of ten non-smokers will end up with reduced lung functioning and or upper or lower respiratory problems. According to Ameron, secondhand smoke is even more dangerous than mainstream smoke. He also states that breathing tobacco smoke can aggravate the condition of people with allergies or with lung, heart, or respiratory problems. Sufferers with chronic bronchitis and emphysema, for instance, are made extremely uncomfortable by severe air pollution. Yet the levels of carbon monoxide and other pollutants in smoke-filled rooms may be as high or higher than those that occur during air polluti on emergencies (Berger 81-87). According to a Health Advocate Magazine, research from different physicians show that Environmental Tobacco Smoke can cause severe heart conditions, and assorted respiratory problems by being exposed to the smoke for a period of time. Even perfectly healthy people are affected by second-hand smoke. Their heart rate, blood pressure, and the level of carbon monoxide in the blood increase when they breathe in air full of tobacco smoke. Also, even after nonsmokers leave a smoky room, it takes hours for the carbon monoxide to leave their bodies. Unlike oxygen, which is breathed in and then out again in minutes, carbon monoxide remains in the blood for long periods of time (Smith 27-29). a journal on of mice and men EssayA recently published study in the New England Journal of Medicine showed reduced lung functioning in children whose mother smoke cigarettes. There is also evidence that once lung disease begins in childhood, it can continue and even worsen over a lifetime. Other Scientific discoveries show that sixty-five percent of children that live with parents who smoke have chronic learning disabilities, and abnormal growth patterns. Researchers have recognized such problems as these to be a leading cause of depression amongst teens; leading to suicide (Lebowitz 171-172). In this research I have discussed the make up of environmental tobacco Smoke and the damages it can cause to non-smoking adults and children. It is clear that this deadly chemical is unhealthy to our everyday lives. Second-hand smoke is harmful to our society, and will continue to be unless we as people take a stand for our children and ourselves. Do not let this hazardous material control your life. Avoid all types of tobacco smoke to assure a healthy life for you and your families. This is one major step in making our world a healthier place to live. BibliographyWorks CitedBender, David et. al. Smoking: Current Controversies. Bender David. San Diego California. September 23, 1995. 362.29. Berger, Gilda. Smoking Not Allowed: The Debate. Business Week. Office Smokers Feel the Heat, November 29, 1982. Daily News. Smoking Bill Clouds the Issue, March 26, 1986. Journal of the American Medical Association. Nonsmokers Rights, May 19, 1978. Journal of the Israel Medical Association. Passive Smoking, April 1, 1981. 362.29. Cain, W. et. al. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Sensory Reactions of Occupants. Atmospheric Environment. Massachusetts. July 03,. 1988. 347.35. Ecobichon, Donald and Wu, Joseph. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Proceedings of the International Symposium at McGill University 1989. McGill University: Montreal, Canada. November 3 and 4 1989. 616.86. Fried, Peter and Oxorn, Harry. Smoking For Two: Cigarettes and Pregnancy. The Free Press. A Division of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. New York, New York. Collier Macmillan Publishers. Canada. April 05, 1980. 618.32Hammond, s. et al. Collection and Analysis of Nicotine as a Marker for Environmental Tobacco Smoke. New York, New York. October 15, 1992. 457.46. Landoll, Inc et. Al. Websters Dictionary: New Revised and Expanded Edition. Landoll Inc. Ashland, Ohio. 1993. 71. Lebowitz, M.D., and Holberg C.H. Effects of parental smoking and other risk factors on the development of pulmonary function in children and adolescents. Am. J. Epidemiol. Massachusetts/ Toronto. February 24, 1988. 982.47Mendelson, Jack and Mello, Nancy. The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Drugs: Nicotine an Old-Fashioned Addiction. Chelsea House Publishers. New York, New York. 1985. 613.85. Sullum, Jacob. For Your Own Good: The Anti-Smoking Crusade and the Tyranny of Public Health. The free press: New York, New York. April 12, 1998. 363.4.

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Management in various areas

Introduction The modern business environment is very volatile and complex therefore demanding more attention and dedication from entrepreneurs and business executives. If business individuals lack the necessary management skills then their business efforts are most likely to fail because businesses demand that managers make the right decisions in order for them to survive in time of emergency and even in the normal course of business (Baruch, 2004, 114).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Management in various areas specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Next Generation Management module is a module that will enable those interested in management to understand how to manage not only their own business ventures and organizations and also impart sense of social responsibility through attending various lecture, workshops, seminars, and conferences around Dublin. Contemporary management of organizations is not simple and therefore this is why this module will concentrate ensuring that attendees gain skills on: Personal and Career Development: Competence assessment, planning and development, which is important in ensuring that managers have the ability to attain skills that will assist them to have the necessary skills in both the short run and long run such skills include better decision making capability, better leadership ability, and in turn managers will be able to base their decisions on logic through critical thinking. Furthermore managers who undergo personal development programs are able to portray self confidence communicate better and even end up being creative due to the flexible approach that they have to tackling organizational issues. The Next Generation module will also help managers gain ability to appreciate the need of operating with a Global and a societal approach by attending lecturers from renown Nobel Laureate, Dr Chu the discussion made clear that the physical environment was part and parcel of the business environment and therefore needed to be taken care of because if it disintegrates that the economy and human economic activities will also fail. Additionally, discussions from this part of the model enable students of management appreciate the role of creativity and innovation together with the important role which both agriculture, ethics and Greenpeace plays in the environment. Research is a crucial part of Next Generation management module because research is able to assist managers gain the right information that will guide their decision making and logical thinking process. Discussions unveiled on the importance of carrying out systematic research and avoiding plagiarism because plagiarism can often affect the outcome of a research and compromise its quality.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research is an important part of today’s business environment and therefore it is important to gather and analyze data properly so that the information obtained can be considered useful and assist in decision making( Kourdi 2009, 114). The discussions on research did shed light on Digital media and communication which has become an integral part of organizational and inter-organizational communication. Managers are therefore required to embrace the emerging communication trends that individuals in the business world are adopting today because they can determine whether an organization performs better or even fails. The acquisition of the right skill set and through continuous learning is crucial for those who intend to become good managers since it helps them realize and even surpass their potential. With more high-tech devices, mobile technology and software it is necessary for managers to attend various seminars and tutorials and implement continuous learning techniques that will allow them to embrace the latest communic ation and software trends for the benefit of their organization especially when dealing with consumers (Solomon Askegaard, 2002, p.44) Overall Reflection Managers in any functional area of an organization are expected to run organizations on behalf of the shareholders and produce the expected results it is therefore necessary that managers gather the necessary knowledge from various avenues in order for them to get the necessary skills to help them carry out their functions more successfully and efficiently. The Next Generation Management gives managers the opportunity by which they can learn more and become better managers through attending a series lecture, workshops, seminars, mini-conferences that aim to encourage, the need to sustain personal development, social responsibility, research skills and communication skills which are an essential part of today’s organizations (Trott 2008, 78). This module is therefore very important not only for businesses, organizations and managers as individuals but also can be influential in the country’s economy, which aims to increase the output of individuals who are directly linked to the economy of the country. The economy and the business environment are subject to highly complex variables and all managers including marketing managers should be ready to solve business problems as they present themselves.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Management in various areas specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is therefore necessary for entrepreneurs and leaders to have the necessary management skills so that complex business situations can be solved and situations which often present themselves as problems can be turned into opportunities (Kourdi 2009, 4). By applying leadership skills organizational managers can come across as more effective and make better decisions because their analytical and logical skills can be easily improved as a resu lt of attending discussions of this model. This module furthermore insists on the importance and priority that should be attached to creativity and innovation at both the individual and society level. Many individuals who haven’t been exposed to teachings of this model may be tempted to ignore the importance of innovation in today’s society. The Next Generation Management gives the learner the opportunity to expand their mindset to look at the business and economy as part of the globe and the entire global society and therefore initiate solutions that are not only solutions to the problems of the county of Ireland but are also a solution for the entire globe. When managers operate with global approach they are most likely to make decisions that are more ethical and moral. Today’s business environment is full of scandals and irresponsibility and thus managers are required to put their foot down and make decisions that not only correlate to their interests but als o to the interests of the community. This module enables managers weigh benefits accrued in the short run and compare them to benefits that will be accrued in the long run and factor them in their decision making in order to increase positive outcome. Managers need to discover that business success doesn’t come easy and if they desire to be successful they are required to become very creative and innovative. Creativity is becoming the backbone of the world’s greatest organizations and the largest economies. Managers are therefore required not only to use their abilities but also gather the views of various subordinates and together work towards developing creative approaches of doing business and reinventing the economy. The Next Generation module also enabled us understand the importance of taking care of the environment and ensuring that the country remains agriculturally stable in order to ensure that the future of Ireland is secured because food stability is import ant to the economy of any country.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The destruction of the environment will therefore have a negative toll on the business environment and thus managers should not remain ignorant or arrogant to the environment hence they should struggle to maintain the environment one on one or through environmental organizations such as Greenspan. This module provided a platform which made it clear that research should take center stage in improving not only the economy but also businesses. Managers are supposed to carry out research more frequently and vigorously and information gathered from research should be clearly analyzed using packages such as SPSS can be used to assist in the process of decision making. Managers usually require a lot of facts so that their ability to make carry out analysis and solve problems can be made easier. There are many dangers of plagiarizing work and therefore it is necessary for managers to carry out independent qualitative and quantitative research so that their research can unveil new findings t hat can help them and their organization carry out innovative changes. It is thus necessary to use all research tools in order to ensure that the findings of research can turn out to be very useful even when presented to other peers and those who the information as useful. The Next Generation Management gave us the opportunity to appreciate the development in media and communication techniques that are used in today’s commercial environment. Technological environment have led to many inventions which managers can use to carry out their functions more easily and companies can even collect data from their consumers more easily through socials sites and mobile applications and use this in shaping organizational strategy. Marketing managers for example, can improve on organizational marketing strategy and even increase organizational revenue streams by embracing the role played by technology in the media (Trott, 2008, 103-113). The introduction of the internet in the business env ironment is very important to the managers since the managers can use internet search engines to maximize business opportunities for themselves and their organizations, and it is therefore necessary for managers to take technology serious because it is a key success ingredient in today’s business environment. Enterprise Resource planning is an important part of today’s organizations because it assists organizations to minimize losses and wastage of resources and therefore organizations should also adopt technologies that will allow them to plan on how to optimize the use of their resources. In conclusion the Next Generation Management module has opened my eyes to the world of strategic management practices, making it clear that success of today’s commercial enterprises depends on how well managers are able to make financial, marketing, human resource and other organizational decisions by adopting innovative techniques. Personal Career Development Good managemen t is necessary for the continued existence and success of commercial organizations; this is because commercial organization and even non commercial organizations usually find themselves in ambiguous situations that require managers to use their skills and talents to direct the organization out of dilemmas. For managers to successfully plan, staff, control, organize and direct the organization it is necessary that these managers obtain the necessary set of skills that will proof usefully in ensuring that the day to day and long run operations of the organization are carried out smoothly. Organizations are driven by strategic goals which are enshrined in the mission and vision of the company and it is therefore important to ensure that organizational staff and especially management have their talents and skills fully developed to competently deal with ambiguous situations (Baruch 2004, 44). While an organizations mission is mostly a vehicle of taking the organization into the future i t mainly operates with a short term day to day operation and the vision is usually long-term managers are therefore need to have their personal skills developed for them to make the necessary career decisions effectively. Most of these skills were developed in a series of seminars and workshops that required managers to go out on their own talk. For example Deloitte conference, assess the value of an idea, CV writing workshop, Bobby Kerr-motivation, coaching speech, Paddy Power – motivation, coaching speech, Attendance of Chinese classes- for personal development, Be involved in tutoring of IT for elderly people, and Improving Yourself-esteem – seminar/workshop. It is hence clear that managers require their organizations to put in place training and development schedules that will assist their managers require the necessary long-term and short-term skills to effectively carry out their organization responsibilities in today’s turbulent business environment. The following are the most important skills that those who were part of the management module were required to acquire. The Next Generation Management module required that managers attend lectures, workshops, seminars, mini-conferences and individual development of personal development plan speeches Dublin. The following are some of the necessary shorter skills that managers were able to develop during this Next Generation Management module which were scheduled to take place in a timeframe of 12 months: Self confidence Managers are required to operate with a high level of confidence this is because other subordinates look up to them. Hence, if managers do not portray self confidence then subordinates may be forced to doubt his leadership and decision making abilities and this is will therefore affect the organization (Baruch, 2004, 32). Managers are therefore required to dress, talk and even carry themselves in such a way that portrays that they are highly confident. Managers are requir ed to have a positive image and positive thoughts of hope and possibility and transfer this to subordinates ands clients while interacting in the normal course of business. Communication Communication is a key part of business and is therefore vital that managers use communication techniques that will ensure all stakeholders are informed in the right time and the right information is given to them. Managers are therefore required to develop skills that will allow them to pass messages with the right tone, mimics, gestures and pronunciation (Corfield 2009, 5). Managers are also required to have the appropriate presentation skills that will enable the managers carry out oral presentations with high effectiveness not only in official meetings but also social events. Adaptability The business environment is volatile and ever changing and it is therefore necessary that managers have the necessary skills that will allow them to be highly flexible especially when organizational changes tak e place. Managers are therefore required to be highly radical and use environmental scanning techniques and create the necessary support systems that will enable the organization embrace change. Dynamic managers are more likely to create organizations that smoothly embrace strategic change that is necessary for better performance of the organization. Creativity/Innovative thinking It is often the task of managers to make sure that fresh ideas are consistently developed in commercial organizations. A dynamic environment requires new ideas frequently and thus managers are required to be trained to tap into their imagination in order to develop new ideas (Trott, 2008, p.7). Managers are thus encouraged to continuously research read and even attend seminars that will develop their innovative skills. Self Management Manager are required to have the necessary skills to prioritize and efficiently allocate resources where they are needed and therefore they need to develop their self managem ent skills. Managers are required to plan in advance and schedule activities within a timeframe and see to it that these events occur as planned. The Next Generation Management module which was scheduled took place in a timeframe of 12 months also ensured that manager’s personal and career development assisted manager’s gain the following skills. Leadership Managers are supposed to be leaders and be able to influence the behavior of individuals and inspire them to follow the strategic goals of an organization in order to achieve the mission and vision. Managers with up to date leadership skills are able to set goals prioritize and also operate with well defined action plans. Leaders set an image for the organization and trend for subordinates by ensuring that they have a positive attitude, properly research and have the knowledge and assist subordinates to grasp the fact and process, and this was the aim of the Next Generation Management module. Teamwork Managers are r equired to have the ability to bring subordinates’ together and build relationships through cooperation and mutual respect for the benefit of the organization (Whetton Camerson 2007, 88). Managers are able to do this by constantly attending seminars, tutorials and social events in order to gain team building skills. Decision making Managers are often required to make quick decisions when need arises and hence it in good that managers have the ability to analyze situations with wisdom and make acceptable justifiable solutions that are backed by fact and reason (Beeson 2009, 54). Managers build such capacity through tutorials, seminars and focus on continuous research. Analytical and Problem solving techniques Manages are required to use logic and reason in order to ensure that they can effectively resolve difficult matters that are problematic. It is thus very important that managers develop the right potential to handle problematic situations and emerge out of them by using logic and facts to solve problems (Whetton Camerson, 2007, p.18). Managers are able to acquire this skill through continuous learning and research, concentration and also by attending the right seminars and tutorials. Global and Societal Awareness Nobel Laureate Lecture The Next Generation Management module demanded that we attend seminars and tutorials to assist us as students of contemporary management to get an in-depth experience of why it is necessary for manager’s, businessmen and entrepreneurs to have societal awareness while carrying out their duties. In one of our lectures at a seminar, the Nobel Laureate Dr Chu and other numerous speakers made it clear that it is important for students of business to know that business activities are usually accompanied by physical impact, because business activities usually depend a lot on the environment for most of its activities to be successful. Dr Chu made it clear that the operations of businesses and commercial enterprises normally cause climate and environmental changes. He furthermore made it clear that the issue of energy has caused big debate and it is now the high time that researchers encourage industries to use renewable energy sources and re-evaluate energy policies so as to save the planet from further depletion. The speaker insisted that the downturn and destruction of the environment would most likely lead to the demise of the economy and it is thus necessary to nature the environment and replenish it using technologies that will transform the environment in order for human economic activities to take place. University of Enterprise: Delivering Ireland’s Next Class of Successful Entrepreneurs. The future of the economy and of the corporate world definitely depends on how well today’s young entrepreneurs are natured and brought up in order for them to become the best business elite in the future. Modern entrepreneurs are therefore required to be shaped in order for them to beco me highly dynamic and environmentally conscious. If the upcoming entrepreneurs are arrogant and ignore the important role the environment plays making their ventures a success then there will be faced with an economic downturn thus entrepreneurs should operate with practices which do not pollute or degrade the environment. It is thus necessary to prepare entrepreneurs so that they can acquire the necessary knowledge and also have the ability to apply it in the real world (Trott, 2008, p.33). Lectures at the workshop also made it clear those entrepreneurs who continuously learn and take education serious are more likely succeed. The Long Debate (Inventorium) This discussion made it clear Creativity and imagination is a key cornerstone of today’s turbulent business environment laying emphasis that the greatest organizations are continuously searching for new creative avenues of doing business and therefore this is why they excel as compared to their counterparts (Trott, 2008, p .16). The lecturers made it clear that an economy which considers itself as superior and smart must continuously apply more effort towards ensuring that their greatest minds are always working on the next big thing. Ireland is a country of vision and thus has put its best minds towards bringing innovative practices into the country’s economy. Additionally it is also important for the entire society to create mechanisms for sustaining development but at the same time self-development should not be ignored because it is important to the success of entrepreneurs and organizations. The speaker insisted that if one is expected to be outstanding, it is a must that he/she operates with a mentality that will give his or her venture the stability to be highly creative so that he can use novellus ideas to outshine other competitors. Climate Change and agriculture The discussion centered on the importance of agriculture on the economy keeping in mind that one of the most important eleme nts of an economy is the ability of a country to have enough food to feeds it citizens in order for it to move towards industrialization. The current global economy is growing at a faster pace and the environment is becoming depleted due to the careless nature of corporations therefore threatening agricultural activities. The discussion also revealed that the effects of pollution and deforestation are having a negative effect on the temperatures, rainfall and the quality of the soil therefore having a negative impact on agriculture. If the current trend continues together with effects of population explosion then it is more likely that the global economy and entrepreneurial efforts will also be affected and therefore innovative methods like green houses must be introduced in order to increase food production. Personal Ethics The discussion made it clear that ethics provide a basis by which individuals are able to determine what is right or wrong. Ethics are governed by moral values and what may be morally ethical in Ireland may not be necessarily ethical in any other part of the world. The discussion further revealed that what is lawful is not necessarily ethical and that individuals are normally torn between loyalty and the truth or even sometimes on maters to do with personal interest verses community interest therefore affecting their decisions. It is therefore true to conclude ethics is strictly personal and thus individuals must evaluate the possible consequences of their actions/decisions and if the results are have more harm that good to the society abandon them. The business environment is for example involved with decisions that aim to increase benefit of the organization but it is necessary that managers and entrepreneurs apply ethical principles while making business decisions. Managers and entrepreneurs’ should apply wisdom and not only look at a short-term view but also take a long-term approach while making business decisions. Greenpeace T his discussion was based around the numerous numbers of non governmental organizations that have dedicated their efforts towards restoring the sanctity of the environment that has come about as the result of human activity. The discussion revealed that Greenpeace is a non governmental organization that funds its activities using donations, the organization aims to restore flora and fauna and make earth a better place by reducing environment destruction. Entrepreneurs and business executives are aware of the toll that their business activities have on the environment and therefore it is important for them to use their corporate social responsibility arm by donating and funding activities of such bodies with the aim of having the environment restored. The advantage of having such organizations around is that these organizations promote responsible behavior by adjusting the attitudes of human beings who are responsible of exploiting natural resources. The organization has hence achieve d a lot through its operations which spread in over 40 countries in the world, making it a very important part of the global society. Research Research skills are important for today’s managers, the business environment is highly volatile and organizations are faced with problems and thereby managers and employees need to have the ability to carry out research in order to assist management to make important decisions based on factual findings (McGivern, 2006, p123). It is thus necessary for individuals to adhere to ethics and ensure that any research that they carry out is not plagiarized. Every research is unique in its own way and it is hence necessary to carry out research diligently and base the findings and recommendations based on the findings of the research (Hogan, Dolan, Donnellly, 2009, p.16). Discussions in the Next Generation Management module made it clear that if a researcher carries out research and for what ever reasons decides to replicate findings by borrow ing from the works of another researcher it will be necessary that the researcher acknowledge all sources where he/she borrowed from. Plagiarism is not only illegal but it can also be misleading in some instances and thereby compromise any strategic decisions that managers make especially in commercial organizations. It is therefore necessary for researchers to be highly disciplined and carry out their literature review properly by consulting and acknowledging the various sources of their information. Once researcher has gathered the necessary data it then becomes their responsibility to interpret and arrange the data in such a way that it will serve the main objective of their research. The researcher must find the most suitable way to analyze their data so that it can make sense to the audience which it was intended for (Kourdi, 2009, p.38). Many researchers conduct their research so that they can provide useful information that can be used by not only other peers but also by thos e in the business environment in order to assist managers in their decision making process. This is therefore the main reason which always drives researchers to carry out research in order to have them published and reviewed by their peers. When a particular writer’s research is highly appreciated and commended by peers then a researcher feels a sense of pride and therefore will continue to expound on his research by carrying out other works. Strategic decisions especially branding and product decisions made by marketing managers are not guess work but rather they are based on academic foundations that are normally obtained from various peer reviews and published sources. If this published work and peer reviews were absent then it would make it hard to know which research findings were more correct and therefore justifiable, this fact would make it quite hard for business managers to carry out decision making because they would simply doubt the facts that were presented in fr ont of them. Peer review enables various researches which are published undergo vigorous scrutiny and therefore ascertain the validity of their contributing to the various disciplines they claim to have authority over. SPSS is a software package that enables individuals carrying out research quantify their findings and make the most suitable conclusions hence, making useful information out of the data (Burrell, and Morgan, 1979, p.13) The discussion of the Next Generation Management module made it clear that this software is very important in the field of social sciences. When researchers want to carry out social researches and even analyze demographic data this package becomes a very important part of their research due to its ability to accept quantitative data and summarize it in the form of graphs, pie charts and even pictographs (McGivern, 2006, p 43). Marketing activities of such organizations usually require a lot of research that requires demographic analysis and thus manage r’s end up using this package to make the necessary deductions that are crucial in formulating marketing strategy (Burrell, Morgan,1979, p.98). It thus becomes clear that in the absence of this package then managers would be subjected to a more tiresome ways of analyzing data that is collected using questionnaires. It is thus necessary for managers who intend to become good researchers to quickly learn and frequently use this package in order to have more factual information that is good for decision making within the organization. The Next Generation Module discussion also made it clear that the research process can only be successful if the right techniques are used by managers to construct the moist appropriate questionnaires. Faulty questionnaires will most likely compromise the entire research process and it is therefore important for a manager/researcher to clearly define the purpose of his research and thus generate questionnaire questions that are specific and approp riate for the research at hand (Burns Burns, 2008,p.63-67). If the questionnaire is compromised then the findings will most likely also be compromised and such events will in turn the decisions which managers make in the long run. Dublin buss is able to accurately construct its questionnaires in order to gather satisfaction data from its customers and use this information to justify any strategic changes (Solomon Askegaard, 2002, p.17). Digital Skills, Media Communication The need for individuals within the business community and the economy to communicate is very important and plays a big role in determining the success or failure of the organizations which they run, it thus has become very necessary that individuals within the business industry to dedicate resources and adopt the use of web technologies such as CSS3 HTML5 in order to maximize the potential of their business ventures. Web technologies are thus very essential because they enable companies and organizations devel op websites that are a very important part of communication and business considering the web is sometimes necessary for financial transactions and exchange of goods and services to occur (Hoffman Novak, 2000). Managers within functional areas of I.T and marketing should make sure that the individuals who are responsible for using web technologies have the necessary programming skills that enable them program and develop websites efficiently by getting rid of redundant coding technologies. The Discussion by Mike Schroepfer, Facebook VP of engineering, enabled the participants understand that computer science developments play a very big role towards defining the level of innovation among many industries and especially businesses. Computer science enables managers develop the necessary innovations that are necessary in project management and also plays a big role towards ensuring that people around the world are connected to each other therefore enabling a lot of opportunities to be realized (Payne Peck, 2003, p.87). Business managers and marketers especially should ensure while using such technologies that the parameters are customized in such a way that the end consumers find it suitable for their use. As much as individuals usually resist change, it is the duty of managers to work hand in hand with the society to help them embrace change that will result to more positive outcome. As much as consumers and majority of businesses are embracing the digital age that has most of its activities going on over the internet, managers are thus expected to have the necessary minimum skills that will enable them embrace the digital world that has become inseparable for businesses ( Kourdi, 2009. P.188-190). Majority of business activities and especially marketing activities have forced marketing managers to formulate digital strategies that will enable them carry their business activities on the net. Web 2.0 technologies has taken the concept of social marketing to anot her height thereby pushing a lot of consumer traffic to the net and therefore companies are even distributing, promoting and marketing their products using viral marketing techniques. Blogging sites have now become a part of the social revolution on the internet thus demanding managers to develop strategies that will enable their products and brands gain good images and ratings in the social media of the internet. A while back, mobile phones were just used for communication by marketers and managers, thanks to the numerous mobile phone applications that run on smartphones such as IPhone and Android enabled hand sets consumers have a direct link to the worldwide web and business products just on the click of a button. With these facts unveiled managers are supposed to get rid of mobile any obstacles that hinder the enhancement of doing business between organizations by developing programs and applications that will make it easy and more convenient for consumers to conduct business wi th their mobiles. Numerous businesses around the world are increasing their business potential and realizing many revenue streams as a result of embracing and integrating the use of mobile applications into their business models. Search optimization technology is very important as far as using web applications is concerned and a company’s website may simply have low traffic and low transactions if the wrong approach was used by developers and I.T specialists in order to set up a website (Windham, 2001, p.145). Website developers thus have no option but to work hand in hand with all functional managers in order to ensure that the right key words are used while developing websites so that when consumers/clientele go online their websites are more likely to have more chances of being accessed by consumers who wish to purchase products or access company information. I.T department plays a very big role in ensuring that organizations communicate with the entire world and it is the refore up to them to adopt the latest technologies such as cloud computing technology in order to take their organizations into the next level and make it more easier for customers to use the web to interact with the organization (Hoffman Novak, 2000). If organizations fail to use technology to store appropriate consumers data and manage organizational resources then it will become hard for this organizations to maximize their business opportunities. As technologies become obsolete and as new technologies become more usable the I.T experts are required to ensure that the transition between technologies is smooth and doesn’t affect the organization negatively. Software used within organizations is used in order to help organizations manage resources and run operations with a high degree of efficiency. Many organizations are adopting the use of Enterprise Resource Planning Technology with the aim that the software will assist the organization through its managers prevent the w astage of resource through optimizing the use of resources within the organization. The introduction of such software enables organization plan its sales and revenue streams at a high and also reduce any unnecessary cost thereby saving organizations from unnecessary loses. The role of software in business cannot be ignored and if the level of software innovation within Ireland decreases, so will the performance of organization and the economy. It is thus necessary for stakeholders to invest in the future of the Irish software industry and ensure that innovation is sustained because if they fail to do this then the growth of the Irish economy and other related industries will also be compromised. The development of new software is vital towards sustain sales and competitive intelligence of many industries and thus continuous and consistent research should be carried out in order to make sure the Irish software industry stays ahead within the markets needs. References Baruch, Y., 2004 . Managing Careers: Theory and Practice. Edinburgh: Pearson Education. Beeson, J., 2009. Managing Yourself: Why you didn’t get that promotion, Harvard Business Review, 14-56. Bryman, A. Bell, E., 2007. Business Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Burns, R. A. Burns, R. B., 2008. Business Research Methods and Statistics using SPSS. Mankato: Sage Publications. Burrell, G. Morgan, G., 1979. Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis. London: Heinemann. Corfield, R., 2009. Preparing the perfect CV: How to make a great impression and get the job you want. London: Kogan-Page. Hoffman, D., Novak, T., 2000. How to Acquire Customers on the Web. Harvard Business Review, 179-188. Hogan, J., Dolan, P. Donnellly, P., 2009. Approaches to Qualitative Research. New York: Oak Tree Press. Kourdi, J., 2009. Business Strategy: A Guide to Effective Decision Making. 2nd edn. New York, NY: Economist books. McGivern, Y., 2006. The Practice of Market and Social Research. L ondon: Prentice-Hall. Payne, C., Peck, C., 2003. Relationship Marketing for Competitive Advantage. Burnbury Road: Butterworth-Heinemann. Saunders, M., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A. 2006. Research Methods for Business Students. London: Pitman Publishing. Solomon, B. Askegaard, L., 2002. Consumer Behavior: A European Perspective FT. New York: Prentice Hall. Trott. P., 2008. Innovation Management and New Product Development, 4th edn. London: Pearson. Whetten, D. A. Cameron, K. S., 2007. Developing Management Skills. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Whetton, D.A., Camerson, K.S., 2007. Developing Management Skills. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Windham, L., 2001. The Soul of the New Consumer. The Attitudes, Behaviours and references of e-Customers. New York: Allworth Press. This essay on Management in various areas was written and submitted by user Ciara Lang to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Red Lake High School Shooting Essay Essays

Red Lake High School Shooting Essay Essays Red Lake High School Shooting Essay Essay Red Lake High School Shooting Essay Essay Essay Topic: High School Jeffrey James â€Å"Jeff† Weise was an Ojibwe Native American stripling. and a pupil at Red Lake Senior High School in Red Lake. Minnesota. He killed nine people and wounded five others in a shooting fling on March 21. 2005. when he was merely 16 old ages old. Weise foremost murdered his gramps and grandfather’s girlfriend at his dawdler place in Red Lake. He so shot and killed an unarmed security guard. a instructor and five pupils at Red Lake Senior High School. The shot ended when Weise committed self-destruction. Research shows that Jeff was a unusual immature adult male. interested in Gothic things black vesture and Nazism. but a expression a small farther into his yesteryear led to a few interesting disclosures. Jeff’s parents were neer married. because his female parent was merely 17 when she gave birth. She was forced to give Jeff to his male parent when he was three months old. Then when he was two his female parent took him back. She was reportedly an opprobrious alky with a inclination to both physically and emotionally mistreat her first born boy. In 1997 Jeff’s father committed self-destruction after a two twenty-four hours draw with constabulary. Then in 1999 his female parent suffered encephalon harm after a auto accident in which she had been imbibing and driving. Jeff was so placed in the attention of his grandma at the Red Lake Reservation. Jeff did non hold the right start in life. His parents should hold been older and more ready for a kid when he was born. They besides should hold been married. Jeff besides should hold had a more stable place life as an baby. It is dubious that he had a steadfast fond regard with his female parent or male parent sing that he was passed between them at 3 months old and 2 old ages old. He besides should non hold been physically or emotionally abused. His female parent failed him in that facet and the fact that she was an alcoholic makes it even worse. It is besides dubious that Jeff dealt with his father’s self-destruction in a healthy manner. He did non hold the support that he should hold had from his female parent. By the clip he got to his grandmother’s attention he had already led a really hard life. This ties in to every chapter that we have discussed so far. It refers to attachment. maltreatment. adolescence and everything. It all goes back to the first thing we talked about that said when parents fail to give their kid a good start in life everybody suffers. as is the instance with the households of Jeff’s victims.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

This is a Strategic Management subject. The assessment is Strategic Assignment

This is a Strategic Management subject. The assessment is Strategic Audit. The Assignnment brief, example and marking guide will - Assignment Example In addition the business level strategies and the entry strategy that Thales will be adopting in China is also explained. Thales’ Business Thales Group is a French business group engaged in defense, aerospace, transportation and security markets. A small portion of Thales’ investments also go into its electrical systems building unit. Thales Group is present in more than 50 countries of the world having workforce of around 70,000 employees. Thales’ business’ size can be gauged by the fact that the company makes billion of Euros in revenues and is considered 475th largest business group amongst Fortune500 and is the 11th largest defense contractor (Thales Group, 2011). Competitive Landscape of Railway Transportation Industry in France Major railway transport operators in France are: Thalys Lyria Eurostar Societe Nationale des Chemins de fer Francais Resear Ferre de France (State Owned) Environmental Scan of Railway Transportation Industry in China To carry out the scanning of an external environment in China’s railway transportation industry, Porter’s Five Forces Model will be used. This model assists in scanning the external environment for: Identifying rivalry within the industry. ... In this paper, Porter’s Five Forces model will be used to examine the external environment of China’s Railway Transportation Industry. Threat of New Entrants In China’s railway transportation industry, the threat of new entrant is low due to the high entry barriers. Usually it requires a mammoth amount of money to acquire license and enter into a railway transportation business (Wan & Liu, 2006). Not everyone can start a railway transportation business because it is a capital extensive decision which includes capital investments in fixed assets like machinery, railway tracks, platforms, engines, rail-cars, and land and auto-mechanic shops. Although, there is still need for railway tracks and transportation services in China due to its huge geography and increased travelers’ pressure, but the acquisition of license and cost of starting this business in the country is still very expensive. Moreover, the railway transport industry largely operates on economie s of scale where the average cost of taking passengers from one station to another decreases as the incoming number of passengers increase (Today Online, 2013). Threat from Substitutes China is amongst those nations of the world who believes on working hard and saving money for the future. The saving trend compels people in China to spend less on luxuries. But in recent 4 to 5 years, it has been noticed that this trend is on shift and Chinese people are looking for quicker travelling options. But still, the traditional Chinese still believes on travelling with cheaper and less time consuming travelling means (Wan & Liu, 2006). Due to the rapid development and financial strength of the Chinese families, they tend to buy cars.